Plant Propagation (HS411)

Objectives
> To provide students with knowledge and skills to propagation methods commonly utilised in horticultural plants
Course Outline
> Introduction to plant propagation
> Propagation by seeds (principles; seed physiology, seed quality, regulation of germination, techniques)
> Asexual (vegetative) propagation, plant patent laws, methods: cuttings, buds, layering, specialised stems, and roots, micro-propagation)
> Nursery Management and culture
> Nursery plant production (planning, soil, media and nutrition management & irrigation, insects and disease management, storage facilities, growth media mixes, composting)
Instruction
> 3 lectures/week; 1 practical/week (seed sowing and germination tests and treatments; asexual propagation (cuttings, layering, tissue culture); After care of seedlings; composting and growing medium mixes
Assessment
> 3 hours examination, two tests; two Assignments /practical reports/experimental projects
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None

Tropical & Sub-Tropical fruit trees production (HS412)

Objectives
> To provide students with knowledge and skills in production practices of selected tropical and subtropical fruit crops
Course Outline
> Industry overview (production areas, types and cultivars, roots stocks, nutritional values, production statistics)
> Climate and soil requirements
> Orchard /plantation layout, planning and establishment
> Fertilising young and old trees
> Problematic/major pests and diseases/diseases of economic importance
> Orchard sanitation and floor management
> Irrigation methods
> Crop manipulation
> Harvesting and post - harvest handling
> Marketing (citrus, pineapple, avocado, mango, banana)
Instruction
> 3 lectures/week; 1practical /week (post planting care, training and pruning, orchard sanitation, orchard floor management, mixing and applying chemicals for weed, pest and disease control; scouting, fertiliser application, calculations on orchard tree population, fertiliser requirements; excursions; group research projects.
Assessment
> 2 tests, 2 practical reports/assignment/research project reports; one-3-hour examination, presentations
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None 

Advanced Vegetable production (HS413)

Objective
> To build on students’ academic English language communication skills by engaging them in listening, speaking, reading, academic writing and grammar learning activities that are relevant to real world encounters in the institute and professional workplace environments.
Course Outline
> Industry overview (nutritional importance, production areas and statistics)
> Principles and practices; Classification; Production systems)
> Conventional vegetable establishment (production planning
> Climate requirements, fertilisation; irrigation)
> Greenhouse structures- construction, control of internal environment
> Irrigation systems; irrigation controllers)
> Water supply, Water quality
> Fertigation
> Production systems (ground, container, soilless; aquaculture
> Integrated disease, pest and weed management
> Marketing systems
> Selected topics in vegetable production
Instruction
> 3 lectures/week, 1 practical/week (pot and field experiments/projects); excursions; group work
Assessment
> 2 Assignments/practical reports, 2 Tests, one-3-hour examination, presentations
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None 

Advanced Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition (SS411)

Objectives
> To demonstrate an understanding in the principles and practices of nutrient management for crop production, and the implications of soil fertility management practices on agricultural sustainability and environmental protection.
> To be able to apply individual and collective knowledge to solving real world nutrient management and soil fertility problems, and to communicate their recommendations for nutrient management and soil fertility to others.
Course Outline
> Current issues on soil fertility and plant nutrition in South Africa
> The chemistry of soil colloids: mineral colloids, organic colloids
> Basic Soil-plant relationship
> Function of inorganic nutrients in plants
> Problem soils
> Analytical techniques in plants and soils
> Soil fertility evaluation
> Soil nutrient management
> Nutrient-water interaction
> The role of soil organisms in plant nutrition
> Economics of plant-nutrient use
> Fertilizers manufacturing and recommendation.
Instruction
> 3 lectures/week; 1 practical/week; presentations; group work
Assessment
> 2 tests, 2 practical reports/assignments; one-3-hour practical examination
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None

Research Methods (FC411)

Objectives
> This course will provide students with an opportunity to enhance their understanding of the principles and processes of agricultural research. Emphasis will be placed on techniques used in identifying problems, forming hypotheses, constructing and using data-gathering instruments, designing research studies, and employing statistical procedures to analyse data and also communicating research findings and outcomes in both oral and written formats.
Course Outline
Introduction to Research
> Definition, Concepts, Ethics
Research methods
> Study the nature of research and the various methods for acquiring information
> Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Research design
> Concepts of design for experimental investigations
> Methods of data collection and organisation
Research proposal development
> The identification and definition of a research topic and its rationale
> Development of literature review and appropriate literature citation
Experimental design and statistics
> Experimental procedures, cause and control of experimental error
> Applications of statistical estimation and inference
> Use of statistical software for data processing
> Approaches to analysing data
> Analysis of variance, one way and multiple ways classification; factor experiments, split-plot designs and analysis of results.
Regression analysis, correlation analysis, Mean comparison techniques.
Data interpretation
Instruction
> In-class discussions, group activities, and case studies. On their own time, students must complete weekly course readings and written assignments
Assessment
> A written assignment in which students will be asked to develop a research proposal on a discipline related topic.
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None

Temperate and Berry trees production (HS421)

Objective
> To provide students with knowledge and skills in production practices associated with selected temperate, nut and berry fruit crops
Course Outline
> Pecan & Macadamia nuts- physiology; propagation, establishment, training and pruning of trees; cultural management; major pests and diseases and their control; nutritional, environmental, and cultural disorders)
> Temperate/ deciduous fruit crops (origin and distribution, classification, principles and cultivation practices; Insect-pest, diseases and their control; physiological disorder and their control measures; post-harvest management and storage; effect of climate change)
> Berry fruit cultivation (growth and development, types, cultivar selection, planting. establishment, cultural management practices, major diseases, pests, and their control; Marketing)
Instruction
> 3 lecture/week, practical arranged (orchard floor management, orchard sanitation, scouting, maturity indexing, mixing, and applying chemicals for weed, pest and disease control; fertiliser application, orchard tree population calculations); excursions; group work
Assessment
> 2 assignments/practical reports; 2 tests; 1 examination (1x3-hour paper)
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None

Post-harvest Handling, Physiology & Technology (HS422)

Objective
> To provide students with knowledge and skills in pre-harvest and post-harvest physiology, technology and value addition and processing to extend shelf life of horticultural commodities.
Course Outline
> Overview of horticultural crops
> Structure and composition
> Maturity indices
> Harvesting & Post-harvest systems (manual and mechanical harvesting; Physiology and biochemistry (pre-harvest and post-harvest)
> Deterioration of horticultural crops (biological & environmental; pre and post-harvest factors contributing to post harvest losses)
> Post -harvest treatments; Storage and packaging technology (storage systems; packaging, materials and transport)
> Processing and preservation technology (minimal, thermal; chemical)
> Post harvest disorders; Safety, sanitation and regulations
Instruction
> 3 lectures and 1 practical per week (maturity determinations; laboratory experiments: physiological and biochemical changes under various storage environments; preservation techniques; industry excursions (fresh produce and flower markets, pack houses); presentations; group work.
Assessment
> 2 major tests, one-3- hour examination, practical/experiment reports, assignments
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None

Landscape and Ornamental Garden Design (HS423)

Objectives
> To provide knowledge in principles and techniques in sound landscaping and design of ornamental gardens
Course Outline
> Introduction to landscaping and garden design, history of landscaping and gardens, principles of landscape design
> Garden styles and types
> Plant selection criteria
> Endangered plant species
> Garden structures and features
> Planning, layout and construction of ornamental gardens
> Permaculture systems (systems, techniques, ecosystems, technologies)
> Irrigation systems and planting
> Lighting systems
> Cultural techniques including pruning watering, fertilizing, topdressing, aerating, pest and disease control.
> Workplace health and Safety
Instruction
> 3 lectures/week; 1 Practical per week (needs assessment, ornament garden design, garden management practices) - 10% of the credit hours for this course will allocated to work integrated learning (WIL)
Assessment
> Practical reports, 2 tests, 2 assignments and 1 examination (1 x 3hr paper)
Credits
> 12
Pre-requisite
> None

Research Projects (FC421)

Objectives
The learners should be able to:
> Identify/formulate the research question or problem statement
> Formulate a research topic, hypothesis and justification
> Set specific, measurable, accurate, realistic and time-frame based research objectives
> Review literature and synthesise it in line with the set topic and outlined objectives and be able to determine information gap
> Set the experiment/study through defining materials and methods (methodology), collect and analyse data through academically acceptable methods (e.g. statistical, socio-economical, econometrical, geo-statistical etc.).
> Report and discuss the research results
> Draw conclusions as guided by classical model (abductive, deductive and inductive), pragmatic model or logical model (logical empiricism)
> Develop recommendations as guided by the research results at least to address knowledge/information gap, policy reference, or practice improvement proposals, affirmations etc.
Course outline 
> Identification/formulation of problem
> Formulation of a research topic, hypothesis and justification
> Setting research objectives
> Literature review and synthesis
> Setting the experiment/study
> Defining materials and methods (methodology),
> Data collection and analysis (e.g. statistical, socio-economical, econometrical, geo-statistical etc.).
> Reporting and interpretation of the research results
> Drawing conclusions as guided by classical model (deductive and inductive), pragmatic model or logical model (logical empiricism)
> Develop recommendations as guided by the research results Analysis of research data, as appropriate to the research project undertaken
Instruction
> Each student selects and executes a special project under a supervisor. Duration of the project is 2 semesters
Assessment
Submission of research project report, Oral presentation
Credits
> 16
Pre-requisite
> None

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